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The Role of Biomarkers in Understanding and Managing Pain: Nursing Contributions in the Precision Health Era

Published:January 11, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmn.2022.12.005
      Pain is among the most common and debilitating symptoms experienced by people around the world. Pain, defined as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with, or resembling that associated with, actual or potential tissue damage” (
      • Raja S.N.
      • Carr D.B.
      • Cohen M.
      • Finnerup N.B.
      • Flor H.
      • Gibson S.
      • Keefe F.J.
      • Mogil J.S.
      • Ringkamp M.
      • Sluka K.A.
      • Song X.J.
      • Stevens B.
      • Sullivan M.D.
      • Tutelman P.R.
      • Ushida T.
      • Vader K.
      The revised International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain: concepts, challenges, and compromises.
      ), is a complex multidimensional phenomenon where biological, psychological, social, and spiritual factors can interact and influence an individual's pain experience (
      • Taylor L.E.V.
      • Stotts N.A.
      • Humphreys J.
      • Treadwell M.J.
      • Miaskowski C.
      A biopsychosocial-spiritual model of chronic pain in adults with sickle cell disease.
      ). The multidimensional and complex nature of pain can lead to significant challenges in adequately assessing and managing pain. Inadequately managed pain can result in negative consequences affecting patients’ daily functioning and overall well-being and can also lead to tremendous societal costs through lost work productivity and disability.
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