Influence of Pain Self‐Efficacy and Gender on Disability in Postoperative Cervical Myelopathy

Published:January 06, 2023DOI:



      Pain self-efficacy and gender may influence disability in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. The direct and interactive influence of pain self-efficacy and gender on postoperative disability with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is unclear.


      This study aimed to determine the effects of age, pain, and pain self-efficacy on disability postoperatively in patients with DCM, and explore whether these effects differ by gender.


      A total of 180 participants who underwent DCM surgery were consecutively recruited. The following were evaluated: (1) demographic/descriptive data (age, gender, diagnosis, surgery date, procedure); (2) numerical rating scale pain and dysesthesia intensity; (3) Neck Disability Index; and (4) Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and simple slope analysis determined the effect of patients’ biologic and psychosocial factors, and their interaction in terms of disability.


      The responses of 82 participants were analyzed. The hierarchical multiple regression final model analysis determined 57.1% participant disability variance; gender (B = 3.388; p < .01); pain (B = 3.574; p < .01); pain self-efficacy (B = −0.229; p < .01); age and gender (B = −0.201; p < .05); pain and gender (B = −3.749; p < .01); pain self-efficacy and gender (B = −0.304; p < .01) were significantly associated with disability. Simple slope test indicated that women showed weaker pain associations and stronger age and pain self-efficacy associations with disability than men.


      Pain self-efficacy improvement should be focused on after surgery in patients with DCM, especially women.
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