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The Effect of Parental Presence on Pain Levels of Children During Invasive Procedures: A Systematic Review

      Abstract

      Aim

      This systematic review was conducted to determine the effect of parental presence on the child's pain intensity during invasive procedures.

      Design

      A systematic review.

      Method

      The systematic review was conducted in July 2019 and updated in December 2020 to include the latest research published during the publication process by scanning the articles in English. Scopus, Pubmed, Cochrane, Science Direct, MedLine databases were used for scanning. The keywords “parental presence”, “family presence”, “parent involvement”, “invasive procedures”, “venipuncture”, “painful procedures”, “child”, “children”, “pediatric” were used in the scanning. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was followed to prepare the study and the report, and the systematic review was created according to the patient, intervention, comparison, outcomes (PICOS) strategy.

      Results

      A total of 248 articles were reached, and the full texts of 18 articles were evaluated for eligibility. After the articles excluded by the full-text search were eliminated, six studies, involving 730 children with a sample aged between 0-12 years, were included in the analysis. In 4 studies, it was determined that having a parent with the child during the invasive procedure significantly decreased the pain level, and in 2 studies, there was no statistically significant decrease in the pain level of the children.

      Conclusions

      Parental presence and parental involvement during invasive procedures effectively reduced the children's pain levels. Since the number of studies with a high level of evidence regarding the effect of family participation on pain level is limited, it is recommended to conduct more randomized controlled studies.
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