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The Impact of a Music Video on Procedural Pain and State Anxiety

      Abstract

      Purpose

      Patients with chronic pain and/or spasticity who have an intrathecal targeted drug delivery (TDD) pump require frequent needle access procedures to refill the pump's medication reservoir. Some patients find the access procedure painful and/or anxiety provoking. The purpose of this study was to determine if a nursing intervention of providing a distraction with a music relaxation video during the pump access procedure would reduce patients’ pain and state anxiety.

      Design/Methods

      In this longitudinal, pre-test post-test, quasi-experimental design, patients watched a 13-minute calming music video while the nurse performed the needle access procedure. Data collection instruments included a combination of researcher-developed questionnaires, the Defense & Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS), and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Pain and anxiety were measured pre- and post-pump refill procedures at baseline with no intervention (T1) and at two subsequent pump refills with the music video intervention (T2 and T3).

      Results

      The sample consisted of 31 adults with chronic pain (n = 28) or spasticity (n = 3). All participants had an implanted pump for at least six months. Specialty trained nurses refilled the participants’ pump in their home. The findings support the use of a music video as an effective intervention for reducing participants’ perception of pain and anxiety during the pump refill procedure. Neither pre-test pain nor pre-test anxiety scores differed across time. Post-test mean pain scores decreased consistently across time (T1 = 5.55, T2 = 4.42, T3 = 4.23; P = .002). Post-test anxiety scores showed a significant decrease (P <.05) between T1 (M = 37.87) and T2 (M = 30.94) which was not sustained at T3 (M = 35.68, P = .284). Overall, the majority of participants indicated liking the music video intervention. They also expressed interest in using the intervention for future refill procedures or other stressful situations.

      Conclusions

      The music video was effective in producing a sustained reduction over time of participants’ pain during the pump refill procedures; it was most effective in initially reducing participants’ state anxiety at the initial intervention visit; however, it did not demonstrate a progressively sustained effect. Participants’ opinions about the music video experience were positive.
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