Pain Perception and Expression: The Influence of Gender, Personal Self-Efficacy, and Lifespan Socialization


      There are differences between males and females regarding the perception, expression, and tolerance of pain that stems from a variety of social and psychologic influences. Personal self-efficacy and lifespan socialization are two such influences, and they provide new dimensions for nurses to better understand the pain experience. This article will present a review of the literature regarding personal self-efficacy and lifespan socialization and their effects on pain perception and expression among males and females. Finally, nursing implications related to the topic will be discussed.
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